Handyguy pretty much nailed it. Shingles shrink as they age and if they are not nailed correctly they will pop the seal strip, causing cupping to occur. When the edges curl, wind will get under the tab and lift the tab. Stress cracking along the tab will cause the tab to break off. This is usually because of 3 nailing and or high nailing, both of which can cause a warranty problem. Most of the premature roof failures we see are because of improper installation.
Patch or start saving, and get a MFG certified contractor to install the next roof. The biggest problem people make when choosing a contractor is not paying to much it's choosing the wrong installer. When you pay the cheapest price you now have the cheapest roof.
It's not uncommon to see failure of a 3-tab shingle anywhere from 12-16 years. Call your INS company, maybe they will be of help, worse they can say is no.