We may need a picture to figure that one out. If you did do some minor surface damage, it could be patched with one of the many wood fillers on the market. Paint will work with fillers far better than stain and poly.
I have had good luck with Elmer's premixed filler for cosmetic damage, and the two part epoxy fillers for damage in areas where there are wear issues. (table tops and hardwood floors) You're going to want something solid enough to sand. Caulking will not lay flat enough for paint on a cabinet door.