I would want to know why the short joist doesn't run to the end. It was probably sistered to the longer one to correct some other problem but it shouldn't be short.
You have a few options
I would look into seeing if its possible to replace the bowed joist with one that is the correct length. The process is beyond what I can safely describe here given what we know.
given that, I would say, yes it should be possible to cut the high spot off of the shorter joist. I cant see it so I cant be 100% certain. If in doubt have a professional come look and give you advice (for a fee).
To cut the high tip you would need to take weight off of it. This can be done with some temporary shims, perhaps even only one. Sort of like an old wooden door stopper. Tap that in place then take a saw and cut the high spot off even with the joist its attached to. Then tap out the shim. The subfloor will either drop onto the joist or it may just stay where it is and settle down over time. Use some screws from above to tighten the floor to the joist and tap down any nails that are not flush.