This picture tells you all you need to know about the wall construction as it SHOULD have been done. You have to examine the damaged wall to see if this was the construction -- my guess is they did not.
If not, I suspect you could pour a collar at the bottom using 2x6 material to elevate the base. Then, you could remove brick high enough to install flashing, making sure you have building paper behind it. The, reinstall bricks back down to the collar. Your goal to to shed water and re-seal the brick so the freeze-thaw does not kill it again.
This is why I live in Southern California.