Part of the reason I posted here was because I tried a lot of the things I found from a simple google search. The drain certainly didn't appear to be obstructed or clogged, I made sure the drain filter was clear, I don't use an air gap, I replaced the drain pump, etc.
As far as normal water depth, its a bit tough to judge since the bottom is all slanted down to the pump/drain at the bottom, but theres enough water that it reaches the shut-off float, though there isn't enough water to actually float the device.
The biggest problem is that the dishwasher attempts to rinse the dishes using the soapy and dirty water. As a result, my dishes are coming out cloudy. A simple workaround is that I run the dishwasher about halfway thru a normal cycle, til the washing should be done, then manually cancel and drain all the water, and then start another cycle with all clean water to rinse. Its annoying, but it works for the time being. However, I'd like to fix the dishwasher so it works properly.