Not in any particular order:
Think of as many ways to do a task as you can. If there is a tool that allows you yet another way, get it. After a while this thought process will become automatic.
Avoid a fall of over 14' at all costs.
Get accounts of accidents from OSHA and try to figure out all the wrong assumptions the injured person made. Foreseen is forewarned is forearmed.
Understand basic physics so you have some idea of forces and the directions of those forces. If a car weighs 3000# and has a front:rear weight distribution of 60:40 you should know what each tire is carrying.
Understand Center of Gravity.
Lift weights so you are better able to control power and hand tools.
Do not endanger or injure bystanders because it will make you unpopular.
People who feel guilty, and masochists, may be accident-prone; if you ruminate about couldas, wouldas and shouldas, be careful.
It is possible to scratch your cornea even if you wear glasses.
As safety increases, productivity decreases. This is a zero-sum-game that labor and management play every day.
If you want to see some of your bones without the benefit of an X-ray you can use a table saw with the guard removed.
As to hand injuries,
-shotgun wound to the palm
are all pretty effective.
The risks and consequences vary depending on your age.
For a legal angle on this, search on "proximate cause." For general risks, try