If you're DIY'self your best bet would be to tackle ceiling insulation first, of course you may have already done this but I thought I'd mention it. I understand the walls need it, but the ceiling is far more important and easier (might be cheaper but I wouldn't bet on it).
Unless the attic is finished, I would use batts or rolls, faced.
Btw, for ceilings they recommend R-49 for energy efficiency, but I'd start with R-19 either faced batts or faced rolls and finish. Then next year perhaps add another layer of unfaced R-30. Or, you could start with faced R-30 but it's not cheap. Beyond that it gets even pricier but there also exists heat-reflective insulation to cover things once it is at R-49. The job in and of itself isn't the most fun, but it is the easiest of them all.
The basement (your floor) would be the next easiest, R-30 is recommended, faced.
Since this usually has to be installed UNDER the floor (and in the case of a basement you'll be dealing with putting it UP) this is the first location where I might recommend putting up R-30 to begin with.
The effect of insulation is cumulative, such as R-11 + R-19 is the same as using R-30, however this can only be practical in applications where adding more insulation later is a straight forward thing to do (ex.: the ceiling).
Not sure about walls, might be either R-20 or R-25 or higher, but you want to check and since it's a royal PITA you want to do the walls right the first time (to the highest recommended green value). Now if you find you have to tear up all sorts of stuff, you might also check into things concerning double pane windows with storm windows, it may be right along the same lines (but it might not), still I'd check into this.
And no, walls are definitely not cheap