Buried around the foundation of your house will be a perforated pipe called a "weeping tile".
This drawing shows weeping tiles around the footing of a basement wall. Where you live, there may be a different kind of drainage system, which is commonly used in your area other than weeping tiles. You'll have to check with your local plumbing inspector or phone up some building contractors to see what's used in your area.
The whole purpose behind weeping tiles is to allow excess ground water saturation to drain into the weeping tile (and on to a sump pit or basement floor drain). By removing he excess ground water around the house, you eliminate the hydrostatic pressure that causes the ground water to migrate INTO the basement walls. Thus, if the weeping tiles are working properly, there is no hydrostatic pressure in the ground water causing it to want to penetrate into the basement wall.
Excessive moisture, masonary and freezing temperatures don't mix. Moisture alone won't cause damage to masonary. Freezing temperatures alone won't cause damage to masonary. It's only when you combine excessive moisture inside the masonary with freezing temperatures that you have serious problems. That's because water expands as it freezes, and the result of water inside masonary freezing is called "spalling" where the surface of the masonary breaks off in "chips".
This is what spalling in concrete looks like:
In this picture, however, it's more likely that the spalling was caused by corrosion products forming around the rebar and building up enough pressure to pop the surface of the concrete off.
Where spalling is caused by freezing water, the process is similar. It's just that the expansive force that causes the concrete to break away in chips at it's surface is caused by the expanding of H2O as it freezes rather than the accumulation of rust around the rebar. The spalling will look the same, but it'll be caused by different mechanisms.
If you don't see any spalling, then you haven't had an real damage so far. Still, I would check to see if you have weeping tiles around your house to carry away excess ground water, and if so, you might be able to get someone to run a video camara into your weeping tiles to see if they're all plugged up with mud.