From what I can see, all those pictures (except the horizontal straight line under the roofline, are "efflorescence".
What happens is that moisture accumulates inside brick walls over the course of the winter as frost. In the spring time, that frost melts and makes it's way to the outside of the wall through the brickwork. As it does, it picks up water soluble clays inside the mortar joints and the brick. When that water reaches the outside surface, the water evaporates and the clays remain behind as a salt deposit on the outside of the bricks.
Take a damp sponge and clean that efflorescence off. If it comes off easily with water, then it's just efflorescence, not mold.
It's very likely that there is mold growing inside the brick walls, and that's because that building was built when heating fuel was cheap and insulation unheard of. So, warm moist indoor air gets into the walls at switch and electrical outlet boxes and into the ceilings at electrical light fixtures and finds it's way into the exterior walls. There it forms condensation in the spring and fall and frost in the winter. That keeps the walls moist, and provides the moisture needed for molds to grow. It also provides the water that causes efflorescence on the exterior of the brick work.
I have no clue what that white line along the roof would be. Efflorescence tends to form blotches on the exterior of the brickwork because the moisture diffuses in every direction as it migrates through the masonary.
That pic from moldinspector.com looks like efflorescence to me as well. The way to tell is to see if that white stuff cleans off easily with water. If it does, it's not mold, but water soluble salts. Also, I can't imagine mold falling off the wall and accumulating on the ground like that. I can see salts doing that, but if mold dies and falls from where it's growing, you'd expect it to change colour as it rots (at least).
Here's a picture of efflorescence:
I can't see how the picture from moldinspector.com differs significantly from the picture of efflorescence. Go to Google Images, and you can find lots of pictures of efflorescence.
Efflorescence really doesn't do any harm to the brickwork. However, it definitely indicates that moisture is migrating through the brickwork, and whether or not the mold smell is associated with that moisture is something that you can't say unless the worst efflorescence occurs around the areas of the building with the worst smell.