Welcome to the site.
Looking at your picture, it looks like they attached thru the steel into the brick, which should have worked, but the brick broke out.
Glue will not work!
If you can find hinges that fit those holes, you might be able to tap threads in the steel for a machine thread screw, but that might be to big for the holes in the hinges.
If this only a few doors it might be better to line this with wood and buy new doors.
Other may have better ideas.