OK, I doubt "bead" is the correct reference. Sounds more like "corner protectors", I assume since they are glued-on they are a topical application. I have them in my house also.
Use a putty knife or chisel to pry them off. Scrape any of the adhesive that remains, then it may be necessary to Spackle whatever damage you may cause. No big deal this one is easy.
A home built in '83 will more than likely be drywall not plaster. That's even better for this repair. Spackle (fill) the damage then sand the Spackle if necessary. I think you can buy small hole repair kits at home centers that will include the right filler (Spackle) and the right sandpaper (if needed). If not, 100 or 150 grit sandpaper will work. Once sanded you're ready to repaint.